Chapter 2. Physical Descriptions of the Nummo (also spelled Nommo)

Figure 2-1. Chameleon with Horn

Figure 2-2. With Casque 6

The crucial point of the Dogon religion wasn't simply based on the fact that alien beings came from another star system to Earth. The primary focus of the religion was that these aliens combined their DNA with the animals of Earth to create humanity. According to the Dogon, there wasn't any intelligent life on the planet when the Nummo first came here. The religion's lore suggested that the Nummos' world had been dying, which was why they ended up on Earth. According to the Dogon, the Nummo were androgynous and perceived as being immortal; that is, when they died and were reborn, they were able to remember their previous existence. Immortality in this sense is what we refer to as reincarnation. OgotemmÍli described life and death for the Nummo as being similar to a snake shedding its skin.

Because the Nummos' world was dying, they planned to incorporate their consciousness into the Earth beings they created and then live here on the planet. What the Dogon religion tells us is that their experiment failed.

In order to understand what happened at that time, it is crucial to understand the biological differences between the Nummo and humans. The Nummos' physical characteristics are what we normally associate with inferior species. The fact that OgotemmÍli described these snake- and fish-like beings as superior to humans must have seemed unthinkable in 1946. I suspect the idea of human superiority was the main reason why the existence of the Nummo has been historically denied.

It is highly probable, however, that any alien being that visited the Earth would be very different from animals that evolved here on this planet. According to scientists like Carl Sagan, alien creatures would probably not look anything like us. This is because creatures generally evolve in relation to their own planet's environment. Sagan believed that it might be possible to find intelligent life on another planet, but the possibility of finding aliens who were like us was not.1

It was from descriptions given by OgotemmÍli that the true physical and spiritual makeup of the Nummo was revealed. According to OgotemmÍli's description of them, the Nummo, whom he also referred to as the Serpent, were amphibians that were often compared to serpents, lizards, chameleons, and occasionally even sloths (because of their being slow moving and having a shapeless neck). They were also identified as fish capable of walking on land; while they were on land, the Nummo stood upright on their tails. The Nummos' skin was primarily green, but, like the chameleon, it sometimes changed colours. It was said to at times have all the colours of the rainbow.2

What we know of earthly chameleons is that their colour changes according to mood changes or temperature changes. The Jackson's chameleon looks like a triceratops from the time of dinosaurs. The Brookesia Perarmata chameleon is hideous looking with horns. The veiled chameleon has what is known as a casque that is made of bone from the parietal crest, which starts in the middle of the top of the head and then goes up and back until it reaches the rest of the casque.3 OgotemmÍli made several references to the fact the Serpent had horns or even a casque. In one passage, he described the skull of the Nummo, saying that there was an ear of millet in a long crack protruding from the Serpent's skull.4 There was another reference to this long horn or casque protruding from the Nummos' skull when OgotemmÍli described the hood worn by the Nummo ancestor relating his head to a stalk of corn. He said the Nummo's head fits into the oblong hood in the same way that a stalk of corn fits into its husk.5

Figures 2-1 and 2-2 show chameleons. The first one has a horn, the second, a casque. Other types of chameleons show variations of these horns, with some protruding upward and some larger. Chameleons have long sticky tongues, slightly split like those of snakes and other lizards, and feed on crickets, mealworms, cockroaches, and flies. This is not unlike the tongue of the Nummo, which OgotemmÍli described as being forked.7

A chameleon's front feet have two fused toes pointing outward and three fused toes pointing inward. The fingers of the Nummo were likewise unusual and differed from humans.8 According to OgotemmÍli, the physical appearance of the Nummo could be seen in the jewellery and other styles of the tribe. Copper rings were only worn on the first finger, ring finger, or little finger. He said people of the tribe didn't wear rings on the thumb or third finger because on the Serpent those fingers were smooth and supple so that rings wouldn't stay in place. Because the Serpent had a tail, no one in the tribe wore jewellery on his or her toes. They did however wear a copper ring or a row of beads on the right ankle to replicate the circular bone found at the end of the Nummo's tail.9

In other examples of the Dogon mimicking the appearance of the Nummo, members of the tribe wore a circlet of green beads on their temples to mimic the Nummos' glittering forehead and necklaces to represent the wrinkles of the Serpent's neck. This circlet of green beads on the Nummos' temple and the Nummos' wrinkled neck are also characteristics of iguanas. The two red beads members of the tribe wore on their nostrils signified the Nummos' red eyes. Other tribal members wore copper bracelets on their wrists and elbows to represent the circular bones that extended from the skin at that part of the Serpent's arms. The Nummos' arms were said to be flexible and have "long unjoined bones."10

OgotemmÍli also made reference to the fact the Serpent had no external ears, only auditory holes. There is some indication that the Nummo may have had to use some device to communicate with humans. At one point OgotemmÍli indicated that humans communicated with the Nummo through a drum.11

Women also filed their teeth to a point to mimic the sharp teeth of the Serpent and had tattoos on their bodies that resembled the lines found on the Nummos' belly. One of the lines stretched from the woman's breasts to her navel, the other stretched horizontally from one side of the belly to the other. According to OgotemmÍli, the incisions creating these tattoos were in two rows of short slanting lines that formed a series of V's without points.12

Figure 2-3. Ubaid Figures Showing Tattoos on Belly 14

If we examine the Ubaid figures in Figure 2-3, we see these Nummo beings described by OgotemmÍli. These figures were uncovered in Ur, in southern Iraq, and date from around 4500 BCE. According to Gordon Childe, they came from prehistoric villages of the Ubaid culture that was named after a site near Ur explored in 1922. Childe said they reappeared in northern Mesopotamia, where they were found at many sites from the Kurdish foothills in Assyria east of the Tigris River to the bend of the Euphrates near Carchemish, and even further west.13

The British Museum also exhibits other figures that look almost identical to these. One is a terracotta figure of a lizard woman suckling a lizard child. She is described by the museum as a lizard figurine. The museum's description reports the child's head as being coffee-bean shaped and elongated, with slanted eyes. Leonard Woolley found the figure, along with a few bones and a clay vessel, in a poorly preserved grave in the cemetery at Ur.15

What is interesting is that these figures show horizontal lines that stretch from one side of the belly to the other. They also show the vertical lines that appear in two rows of short slanting incisions forming a series of Vs without points. Another terracotta figure in the British Museum shows these lines extending from just below the figure's breasts to below the navel, just as Dogon women were tattooed. On the figures, the lines only appear below the navel. It is significant that these lines appear on all of the figures.

The lizard figurine from the British Museum clearly reveals the creature has a fish tail. It is less pronounced on the statues above (Figure 2-3), but it is still evident. The circular markings at the shoulder joints of these figures may represent the circular bones that distended from the skin of the Nummo at the joints and which were mimicked by the Dogon in wearing copper arm and wrist bracelets. The fact that statues resembling descriptions of the Nummo have been uncovered in the Middle East would suggest the Nummo travelled to other places on Earth besides Africa.

A similar figure, on display in the Iraq Museum in Baghdad, is referred to as a serpent goddess or mother goddess and is from the Proto-Literate period 4000 BCE.16 The statue in the Baghdad museum has been damaged, and the bottom is missing, but it does have the same lines on the belly described by OgotemmÍli. It also has the bump like markings at the shoulder joints that were described as circular bones extending from the skin.

These figures look like the creatures described by OgotemmÍli in other ways. They are snake-, fish-, and lizard-like. Their faces look like iguana faces. They lack ears and have what appear to be casques on top of their heads. These casques may also be head coverings of some type, which may cover the horn OgotemmÍli described. OgotemmÍli also said that the Nummos' eyes were slanted, just as they are on these figures. The Nummo were also described as being like sloths because of their shapeless necks; these figures also have shapeless necks. Likewise, sloths have unusual noses, and in profile, the figure on the right has a somewhat protruding nose that almost resembles a cow's nose. This is significant because in Egyptian mythology, the Nummo were associated with Isis, who is sometimes known as the "cow of heaven." OgotemmÍli also said the Nummo were amphibious, living both on land and in water. It is evident from the Dogon religion that the Nummo preferred water to land, as their fish-like tails would have been more useful in moving in water than on land.

Although there were descriptions of the Nummo as resembling chameleons, chameleons are land dwellers and the Nummo were amphibians. Amphibians best known to us are frogs, toads, and salamanders, species which have survived for hundreds of millions of years. Recent global declines in amphibian populations, and the disturbing number of deformed amphibians, has led to new research on these creatures. In 1997, zoologists at Oregon State University presented the first major field study on the cause of the growing number of physical deformities in amphibians. They concluded that the deformities were a result of the levels of ultraviolet, or UV-B, radiation found in sunlight. The experiment was done with long-toed salamanders in lakes of the central Oregon Cascade Range. The results showed that more than 90 percent of salamander embryos that were not shielded from UV-B radiation either died or hatched with deformities.17

Dogon mythology tells that the Nummo preferred dark, cool caves and liked to move about at night rather than in the daylight. It is possible that they might have been affected by sunlight in the same way as these modern long-toed salamanders were.

There are other amphibians less known to us that are considerably stronger. One species, the killifish, is apparently "breaking all the odds." In 2002, Toronto Star science writer Peter Calamai interviewed Guelph University researchers David Noakes and Pat Wright, who were studying the Rivulus marmoratus killifish, which is native to the mangrove swamps of Florida and the Caribbean.18

It was reported in the article that these creatures have an incredible ability for survival and might even outdo the cockroach as having the best chance of "surviving an environmental apocalypse." The killifish were "happy" in temperatures anywhere from 10 įC (50 įF) to 40 įC (104 įF) and were "thriving in water that ranged from almost fresh to twice as salty as normal..." They were also able to live out of water for weeks as long as they stayed moist.19

Not only did the killifish have the ability to live both in and out of water, like the Nummo, but they were also self-fertilizing like the Nummo, having both male and female reproductive organs. OgotemmÍli told Griaule that the Nummo were not only amphibians but also self-generating and androgynous. He said, "by a special dispensation, permitted only to them, they were able to fertilize themselves, being dual and bisexual."20

When talking about the killifish's sexual behaviour, Calamai reported, "While self-fertilization may seem like a survival advantage-avoiding all that energy spent on seeking mates and courtship-it should be an evolutionary death sentence." He quoted Noakes, who said, "They should become completely inbred and very vulnerable." Instead of disappearing from the Earth, however, killifish appear to be strong survivors. The reason for this is said to be their unusual sexual behaviour.

Recent research has shown that 85 per cent of killifish develop ovaries about a month after birth. Then within another month they also develop testes. And for the next two to three years of their average lifespan, most remain typical killifish, reproducing through self-fertilization. But that other 15 per cent develop only testes right at the start. And another 5 to 10 per cent of the bisexual killifish switch back to being only male. These primary and secondary males are more brightly coloured than the duller and dominant bisexual version.21

The researchers predicted there would be typical courtship behaviour between the males and early stage females. "But Noakes and Richard Green, a mathematician from the University of Minnesota, calculated that killifish needed to reproduce by this old-fashioned method only one per cent of the time in order to maintain a protective level of genetic diversity in the species.22

It is probable that the amphibious Nummo procreated much as the killifish do. When the Nummo combined their DNA with the terran animals, the experiment appeared to succeed, and the first humans were born self-fertilizing and immortal like the Nummo. Compared to the killifish, these individuals represented about 85 per cent of the species. It wasn't until after the birth of a single-sexed male that it became evident the experiment had failed. The single-sexed males, if compared with the killifish, represented about 15 per cent of the population, and these individuals were born mortal with no knowledge of a previous existence.

OgotemmÍli described the first biological experiment, which involved a union between the Nummo and Mother Earth, as resulting in the birth of two types of human/Nummo hybrids. One offspring was born "normal" like the Nummo, meaning it was an androgynous or a "twin" Nummo. The other offspring, however, was defective; it was a single-sexed male known as "the jackal."23 Throughout the religion, references to "twinness" represented self-fertilizing androgyny. Even though the "twin" Nummo were identified as being self-fertilizing androgynous beings, the Dogon people perceived them as feminine. They were identified with the sun, which was a female symbol. The jackal, on the other hand, was a single-sexed male. He was the defective offspring and identified with the moon.

In this first attempt at biological engineering, the androgynous aspect of the Nummo did not carry through to both of the offspring. The male was born completely severed from the Nummos' world and tied to Earth. OgotemmÍli explained how "the original incident was destined to affect the course of things forever; from this defective union there was born, instead of the intended twins, a single being, the Thos aureus or jackal, symbol of the difficulties of God."24 From these first offspring, the Dogon perceived the androgynous human/Nummo hybrid as being feminine and good, while the brother of this being was perceived as having been born soulless.

It was this problem of "twin births" versus "single births," or androgyny versus single-sexed beings, that contributed to the disorder at the beginning of time. This theme became a significant basis of the Dogon religion. "The jackal was alone from birth," said OgotemmÍli, "and because of this he did more things than can be told."25 According to the Dogon religion, the Nummo were able to communicate with each other and with other animals and plants on a level unknown to humans. Because the jackal did not have this connection, OgotemmÍli said he was "alone from birth".

The religion indicates that the reason the experiment failed was because the Nummo neglected to take into account the problem of combining their androgynous, spiritually developed DNA with the DNA of single-sexed, unevolved, mortal animals. The Nummo were unaware that their spiritual essence was connected to their biological essence, and tampering with one affected the other. Since the Nummo spent most of their time in water, they probably communicated using sonar in the same way that dolphins do. When a dolphin communicates with sonar, it not only "sees" the object but can tell something about its internal structure. Human vision, on the other hand, stops at the surface of the object being seen.26 This aspect of sonar communication may have been why the Nummo had a spiritual connection with each other and with other plants and animals. The jackal, who was more like humans, lacked this connection.

Nummo Communication

Dr. John Lilly, who spent years studying the difficulties of communication between humans and dolphins, identified some of the problems that exist when these two species attempt to communicate. According to Lilly, sound has a different velocity in water than it does in air. When sound moves from one medium to another, all kinds of things occur, including scattering, absorption, and partial transmission.27 What this means in dolphin/human communication is that when a dolphin surfaces, most of the sound it produces travels into the atmosphere. This is why dolphins' method of communicating doesn't work in air in the same way as human communication does and why human communication is of no use to cetaceans underwater.

Under water with closed cavities, they can communicate over astonishing distances, the order of six miles for the bottle-nosed dolphin and the order of five hundred miles for the finback whale.

This long distance transmission of information contained in the human voice in air is limited to a half mile to one mile under quiet conditions. With special whistle languages, such as those used in the Azores Islands and by the Indians of Mexico, transmission of information can be carried out over long distance of approximately three miles in the mountains.28

Lilly also points out that when we are under water we cannot see into the depths of the black night, nor can we see into fog or cloudy water. But even though our vision is curtailed, we can still hear.29 Lilly believes that the dolphin's sonic-ultrasonic method of communicating is much more complex than ours. He believes that their minds use acoustic analogs, as opposed to visual analogs, which is the way humans communicate. In other words, dolphins see their environment though sound.30

Lilly further reports that dolphins see objects all around them and are capable of sending holographic sonic pictures to one another. They are able to use these pictures symbolically to communicate with each other, just as we use printed words read out loud to communicate.

This implies an immense complexity of acoustic memory and of acoustic portrayal, way beyond anything that we have achieved either in simulations in computers or in terms of concepts having to do with acoustic events. Only our most sophisticated and advanced mathematics can even approach an analysis of this kind of a system. Dolphins' brains have areas for acoustical imaging 10 times the size of humans, and have areas for visual imaging about one-tenth the size of humans. In effect, the dolphin 'sees' by use of sonar, sending out sound waves and interpreting the echo from the objects hit by the sound. While vision stops at the surface of the object being seen, sonar penetrates materials. A dolphin not only 'sees' objects with sonar, it can tell something about the internal structure of what it is encountering.31

This description of sonar communication by Lilly gives us some understanding of how different this form of communication is from ordinary human communication. Dolphins can tell something about the internal structure of the object they encounter, but human vision stops at the surface of the object being examined.

According to OgotemmÍli, it was the Nummo who taught writing and language to humans. Some of the Dogon are said to have originated in Egypt, and there are strong parallels between Dogon and ancient Egyptian mythology. Egyptian hieroglyphics, one of the oldest styles of writing, used visual symbols that were sometimes oral. It was for this reason that it took so long for modern scholars to decipher them.

Hieroglyphics are also written both in rows and columns, and the direction of the signs changes, with texts being written from left to right as well as from right to left. This seems to indicate that whoever created hieroglyphics had no concept of human phonetics. Ancient Egyptian is completely foreign to any other language known to humans.32 The left-to-right and right-to-left writing style might reflect sonar communication as described by Lilly. It is possible that when the Nummo tried to transfer their method of communicating to humans, they had to do it by transferring their acoustic analogs, which they interpreted as echoes from the objects hit by the sound.

It wasn't until the discovery of the Rosetta Stone in 1799 that progress was made into translating the language of the ancient Egyptians. This was because the same passage was inscribed on the stone in ancient Greek and in hieroglyphics. After more than twenty years of work, a French scholar named Jean Champollion translated the Egyptian writing into Greek. He concluded that while hieroglyphics had originally been pictographs, in later times the glyphs stood for sounds.33

According to Tom Hare of Stanford University, it was this concept that hieroglyphs could be used to record sound that finally unravelled the puzzle of what they mean.34 In most languages, phonetic structure allows for comprehension, but in hieroglyphs this is not the case. Hare believes this could have something to do with the fact the ancient Egyptian language has no vowels, so words that might be distinguished in pronunciation appear similar or even identical according to the phonetic information given in the glyphs.35

When Aristotle described the speech of dolphins in Historia Animalium, he said that dolphins were unable to utter an articulate sound or a sound of a vowel and consonant in combination.36 This observation by Aristotle could be equally applied to those who created the Egyptian hieroglyphs, since no vowels existed in the written language. Hare also reports that the Egyptians called their writing, medu netcher, or "the words of the gods," and points out that the word hieroglyph is a Greek word that meant "sacred writing."37

Nummo Transportation

In addition to using sonar to communicate, the Nummo might have been similar to dolphins in other ways. There are passages in Conversations with OgotemmÍli that refer to the fact that the Nummo had to keep moist in order to stay alive. Lannea acida oil, which came from a tree identified as the Nummos' tree, was used by the Nummo to keep their skin from drying out. Moisture was seen as the life-force. OgotemmÍli said that allowing the Serpent to sweat would rob him of his strength and he would die.38 During rituals or ceremonies associated with the Nummo, great effort was made to prevent the Hogon, who represented the Serpent, from suffering fatigue or sweating. Ceremonies took place in the caves of Kunnu-Sese, and the Hogan was carried on a man's back through a mass of rocks and slippery inclines to his temple.39

According to OgotemmÍli, the Serpent was carried because he was moving out of the "reserved territory" and there was danger he might scorch the village, drying out all the millet and turning it red. In other words, the device the Serpent normally used for transportation could not be taken into the human village because it would affect the crops. This tells us that the Nummo used some kind of mechanical device to move around because they were unable to manoeuvre quickly on land. They must have had restricted areas where the device was not used because of its affect on the crops. There is also some suggestion the device was made of iron to protect the land from the flames it emitted. According to OgotemmÍli, iron was "the colour of shade," and the sandal the Serpent wore to move about was made of iron because iron protected the soil from "feet of fire".

In ceremonies at Nanduli, when the priest became identified with the Nummo he put on two iron sandals, which lay on the altar. When the Dogon first made sandals to copy the Nummo, they used iron, but eventually the Nummo convinced them to use leather because it was more comfortable and easier for walking.40 The impracticality of using iron for foot protection suggests the Nummos' iron sandal was powered by something other than the muscles of the Nummo themselves, who already had trouble moving about on land.

In their spaceships, the Nummo were identified with copper, a ram, a rainbow, the sun, and a calabash. OgotemmÍli told how the "ram" had the power of movement once it had risen into the heavens. When it moved in the clouds, he continued, it left a track of four colours that looked like a rainbow. As Griaule reported, "His left forefoot made a black track, his right a red track, the two others one green and one yellow. That fourfold track was called the 'the Nummo's track.'" It was further said that when there were violent storms, the golden ram plunged into the water of the Bananga marsh, south of Lower Ogol, amongst the water lilies for protection.41 This indicates that a rainbow of colours was seen when the Nummo travelled through the sky and that violent storms were dangerous to them, and so they took cover in the marshes amongst the water lilies.

In other descriptions, the spaceships glow in a red ball of light and there is tubing or piping circulating or curling around the outer top of the craft. This tubing contained either water or "liquid copper" and apparently looked like the horns of a ram, which was why they were identified with rams. Since the Nummo also had horns, the spaceships were viewed by the Dogon as being the celestial form of the Nummo.

The ship was also described as being a round red calabash that excreted liquid copper as it moved in space. It glistened with Lannea acida oil. OgotemmÍli identified the copper with the ram's fleece that he said was "excreted by the Water Spirits in the damp atmosphere of heaven."42

There is evidence that the Nummo used "liquid copper" for fuel and that they mined it over bodies of water: "The Nummo being, is in a sense, copper in virtue of his celestial and luminous essence, and takes back to himself all copper that passes over watery places which are his preserves."43 OgotemmÍli said that rays falling from the clouds were changed into copper on touching the ground. "Not on the surface of the ground, however, but deep in the earth, too deep for men to be able to lay hold of it, the transformation took place."44

Anyone wearing copper bracelets was warned to stay away from water, or they would risk being carried away by it, perhaps because of the process used by the Nummo to mine it. OgotemmÍli said, "To pass with the metal near certain waters was to risk seeing it return to the water and be carried away with it oneself."45 Copper, he said, "belongs to the Nummo: he is copper: he excretes copper." OgotemmÍli also said that copper was both water and sun.46

Elsewhere, OgotemmÍli related the Nummos' spaceship to the smith's hook. He said, "The smith's hook is most often a double one with each of its branches ending in a tight curl. It is the horned forehead of the celestial ram, whose carved horns hold the rain clouds." This is another reference to the piping around the ship, which was said to hold water or perhaps "liquid copper", which, according to OgotemmÍli in the previous quotation, was both copper and water and was a part of the sun. Its process was somehow related to the process whereby sunlight causes water to evaporate and produce rain clouds. This may be related to the fact the spaceship was identified with a rainbow. Water and sun symbols were synonymous and signified the Nummo.

Most passages in Conversations with OgotemmÍli tell us that the Nummo liked to live either high in the mountains or deep in underground tunnels and caves. As was mentioned earlier, they preferred to venture out at night. OgotemmÍli said, "Climbing the sandstone slopes and entering the Grendonan quarter was the slippery track by which Lťbť, in the form of a great glittering serpent, passes every night to the sanctuary in town from the cave in which he lives by day." This reference to the slippery track may indicate that the Serpent moved about at night on some kind of traveling device, as the track was previously identified with the Nummo spaceship.

Another passage mentions the Cave of the Steady Women, out of which the Serpent came at night, and another cave called the Cave of God's Baobab, to which he returned at dawn. Some people, OgotemmÍli said, had seen the Serpent in full daylight, bright beige in colour and on the piece of land called Place of Rest, which had been intentionally left unseeded in the field of the Serpent's priest.47

This bright beige object curled in the unseeded field was probably either the Nummo spaceship or the transportation device described earlier in this chapter. The Nummo stayed in dark cool places during the day to prevent their skin from drying out under the hot African sun. The reference to beige or brown indicates that it was something other than the Nummo themselves, who were described as being green. The field in which the object curled was left unseeded, attesting to the fact the device the Serpent used to move around affected the villagers' crops. OgotemmÍli said they could not "move out of the reserved territory" because their transportation device would scorch the millet and the village itself. The priest's field left unseeded might mean that it was created specifically for the spaceship or some other traveling device, and that was why it was called the Place of Rest.

In addition to needing a device to help them manoeuvre adequately on land, the Nummo would also have needed some way to inhale oxygen when they were out of water. Noakes and Wright discuss how the killifish they studied were able to take in oxygen by some means other than gills when they were out of water. The killifish is also able to handle bodily wastes rich in ammonia.

'Ammonia is very toxic if it builds up in the tissues,' Wright says. When a fish is in water, the ionized ammonia can diffuse out of the gills. Out of water, a different process must take place to avoid ammonia poisoning. Ö When out of water the tiny fish somehow manage to turn the ammonia ion into gaseous ammonia and exude it from some part of their body. Just how and where is still a mystery.48

How the Nummo dealt with this particular issue is still unknown. There was never any mention of it by OgotemmÍli.

We can conclude from OgotemmÍli's account that the Nummo were different from human beings in almost every respect. They were immortal, and we perceive ourselves as being mortal. They preferred caves and dark cool places, whereas we prefer warmth and sunlight. They were primarily water dwellers, and we are land dwellers. They lacked feet or legs and, unlike us, could not manoeuvre quickly on land. They were primarily androgynous and self-fertilizing, whereas we are single-sexed beings requiring a mate to procreate. They had soft flexible bones, but our bones are hard and rigid, and their skin was hairless, while we have body hair. They had no ears, and since they spent more time in water than on land, they probably communicated using sonar. Their world was probably acoustically based, whereas our world is visually based. The fact the Nummo were so different from us in all of these respects reinforces the fact they were probably real. If they had been created from our human imagination, they would have been more humanlike. If you would like to purchase this book go to
The Master Of Speech.

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2Griaule. p.188.
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5Griaule. p.20.
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34Tom Hare, "On Reading Egyptian"
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39Griaule. p. 119.
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47Griaule. p. 118
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